Fun with Chinese Adverbs

You have probably never used the word ‘fun’ and ‘adverb’ in the same sentence, but that is most likely because you have not read hundreds and hundreds of pages of translated academic and political articles.

I have recently been doing just that, doing the English editing of translated academic and political resources. What it really involves is taking an article from “Chinglish” into English; from English that sounds like its been translated into something that (hopefully) sounds like it was written in English.

In the course of this work I have found myself chuckling at how the Chinese language uses adverbs. It is never enough to understand. One must ‘correctly understand.’

You don’t reduce something. You ‘maximally reduce’ it.


Herewith are some of my favorite adverb+verb combinations (so far):

  • discretionally inherit
  • comprehensively control
  • maximally avoid
  • constantly innovate
  • cautiously plan
  • constantly explore
  • spontaneously report (as opposed to spontaneously combust)
  • resolutely adhere
  • comprehensively implement
  • actively strengthen
  • earnestly invite
  • resolutely fight
  • comprehensively demonstrate
  • earnestly return

Of course, it’s a mix-and-match game. As far as I can tell, you can pretty much use any adverb with any verb.

Go ahead, give it a try.

Twinkling with Inheritance and Development Achievement (Reprise)

For my next-to-last post of “Language Week” I’m re-posting this essay I wrote a few years back on the perils of translation.

On Thursday night my landlady called and asked if she could come to my apartment because she had some translation questions for me. Now anyone who has been in China for awhile knows the fear and dread that well up inside when someone calls asking for help with translation work. “Just read it over.”  “It won’t take long.”  Those words always precede hours of painful and laborious mental gymnastics trying to translate phrases like the one in the title of this post from what we call “Chinglish” to English.

My landlady and her husband have their own business producing publicity and promotional materials for schools in China.  Since English is so popular, these materials (from DVD’s to brochures) must all be in English as well as Chinese–never mind the fact that very few English speakers will actually see or read them.  In the China of 2005, one simply cannot produce something like this without any English in it.  My landlady out-sources the translations to professionals; however, there are times when, for some reason, she doubts the accuracy of the translations, so asks me to look at them to see if the English makes sense and if it indeed accurately reflects the Chinese meaning.

Yesterday she had one such project for me, and that noise you heard emanating from the western side of Beijing on Friday was the sound of two cultures and languages clashing!

An interesting feature of Chinese discourse is the use of poetic and flowery language in nearly every conceivable context, formal and informal. A language that has been around for 3000 years has quite the collection of poetry, expressions, and idioms, and they are all to be used as much as possible.

The phrase “twinkling with inheriting and development achievement” is merely an extreme example.  The document we worked on had line after line after line of such phrases, and I was supposed to see if the translations were OK.  After awhile of trying to decipher these, one of two things happens. Either I read a sentence and decide it makes perfect sense (a sure sign that I have been in China way too long) or I have to attempt to convince her that it is impossible to translate such a sentence.  In fact, after yesterday, I am convinced that there should be a law against translating such sentences.

When I read it in Chinese, it makes perfect sense, but there’s no way to get it into an English sentence that both maintains the poetry and has meaning. Take your pick, Mrs. Li.  You can’t have it both ways!  Ah, but you see, in Chinese, they do have it both ways, because poetic language is not only permissible in formal writing, it is expected, for it is one of the main ways to demonstrate that one is a literate and cultured person.

After my brain was fried to a crisp trying to disentangle that mess of a sentence, we sat back and discussed the cultural differences.  I explained to her that it was so difficult because in English we have different sets of rules for business writing than for essay writing.  Poetic and creative language can be used in essays, but not in business writing.  Therefore, when translating such phrases, I may be able to come up with some suitable English words that approximate the meaning, but their presence in such a formal setting is completely unacceptable.

Translating such a sentence is nearly impossible because it will never come out in a manner that suits both sides.  If the Chinese person insists that the emotional language remain, than it will be gibberish in English.  If the English speaker wins, then the Chinese will feel like the translation isn’t close enough to the original, in either meaning of feeling (and they’d be correct, of course).

In the course of the conversation, I learned the distinction between two Chinese words for written text:  wenzhang and wenjianWenzhang is the word for essays or articles of a literary nature.  Wenjian is the word for formal documents, like something a boss or leader might hand down to his/her underlings. Wenzhang demands emotional and flowery language.  Wenjian is cold and impersonal, and implies authority, command, and distance.  Poetic language is not used in wenjian, but it must be used in wenzhang.

Aha!  I said to her.  That’s the problem.  In  a Chinese speaker, a brochure like this is considered a wenzhang.  An English speaker would considered it to be a wenjian.  Finally a breakthrough in understanding (for both of us) — an explanation as to why the languages were clashing. In her mind what we were translating was a wenzhang and in my mind it’s clearly a wenjian. Finally she understood. Finally, I understood!

Wenzhang, Wenjian, …..let’s call the whole thing off!


Thanks to the all the new subscribers to my blog this week. Tomorrow I will announce the winners of my book.