Stealing Tea and Saving Face

On our 5200-mile road trip last month, I listened to the audio version of the book For All the Tea in China: How England Stole the World’s Favorite Drink and Changed History by Sarah Rose.

 

For All the Tea in China: How England Stole the World's Favorite Drink and Changed History

Here is the Amazon description of the book:

In the dramatic story of one of the greatest acts of corporate espionage ever committed, Sarah Rose recounts the fascinating, unlikely circumstances surrounding a turning point in economic history. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the British East India Company faced the loss of its monopoly on the fantastically lucrative tea trade with China, forcing it to make the drastic decision of sending Scottish Botanist Robert Fortune to steal the crop from deep within China and bring it back to the British plantations in India. Fortune’s danger-filled odyssey, magnificently recounted here, reads like adventure fiction, revealing a long-forgotten chapter of the past and the wondrous origins of a seemingly ordinary beverage.

The book is a treasure trove of historical information about China in the mid-1800s, as well as all things related to tea. Occasionally, there are cultural gems to be mined. In chapter 5 Rose describes an incident that took place in Hangzhou between Fortune and his servant, Want. Having failed to follow Fortune’s instructions, they find themselves in the city of Hangzhou, where if it is discovered that Fortune is a foreigner and not a Chinese official (he was disguised as one), he could be killed. So he gives the servant a public scolding. In the course of describing this incident, Rose (perhaps inadvertently) gives one of the best descriptions of the Chinese notion of “face” that I have found anywhere!

But Fortune’s recriminations had little effect, for a master’s scolding his servants publicly only served to build their self-esteem, or “face,” as even a reproach was a tacit declaration that the servant was important enough to merit the notice of a wealthy mandarin. In China “face,” or mianxi [sic] was a concept that a Westerner like Fortune did not instinctively understand, describing as it does the prestige and reputation one gains from every human interaction. Relationships in China were defined by the reciprocal obligations between people, whether of the same or a different status, and every individual existed within a network of influence, a matrix of duties and social connections, or guanxi.

The family came first, then the extended social neighborhood. “Face” expressed a person’s position within his or her network and was the mechanism by which the Chinese assessed their obligations: which orders to obey, which favors to grant, and which supplications and apologies to make. A son might perform humble acts for his father, or an employee might bow before his master or a student before his teacher, but in turn the father would have a set of defined responsibilities to the child, the master to the slave, and the teacher to the student.

However subtly they were expressed, mianzi and guanxi were inescapable facts of life in China; then as now they forged the social fabric of the nation. Social connections determined the measure of justice received and discrimination suffered. While no Chinese person was free from these relationships, many peasants had very little face and therefore little access to justice, wealth, or freedom. When social obligations were met, someone gained face and an increase in status; when a person failed those to whom he was socially connected and thereby obligated, he suffered loss of face (diumian) and a downturn in his social standing. When Wang was shouted at by Fortune for failing to follow orders, it demonstrated to the world that he had responsibilities to an important man. Wang lost face with Fortune, while simultaneously gaining it in the wider neighborhood of Hangzhou.

Face was a very Confucian concept. The great philosopher, whose ideas gained influence during the Han Dynasty, 206 BC-AD 220, described a world where familial connections and obligations to ancestors were the highest good and the greatest aim of an individual. A single person was nothing if he did not bring honor to the world from which he came.

A foreigner in China had no network of relationships of prescribed duties and no social capital, and therefore lacked any obvious signifiers of face. Many foreigners handled their outsider status adroitly. They engaged in relationships with the Chinese immediately, offering gifts and favors to officials and higher-ups; they recognized that a servant did not just serve but was owed things other than monetary reward, such as honor and respect. Fortune, however, seems to have paid little attention to the finer points of Chinese social interaction. He treated the Chinese as he would any employee: demanding excellence, refusing to hear excuses, and chastising failure. Wang and Fortune would travel together on and off for years, and the servant valiantly tried to negotiate the workings of guanxi on his master’s behalf. Wang effectively created Fortune’s identity as a mandarin by forging a fictitious network of prestigious connections for him, elevating his master’s face (and, not incidentally, elevating his own status by association). He also bribed and negotiated on Fortune’s behalf, not just for favors, but for face. (p.69-71)

“Note to self,” I thought, as I listened to this passage while driving across the deserts of eastern Oregon, “find a print version of this book and post the passage on my blog.”

Done!

Finding Samuel Lowe

On September 2, the Wall Street Journal’s China Real Time Report blog posted an article about a Jamaican-Chinese woman’s search for her roots.

ca0d6da997c7f811cdca8d4563c6a22c_XL

Growing up in New York’s Harlem, Paula Williams Madison knew she had a Chinese grandfather, even though she had never met him.

When people found out, she says, most of them would make comments such as “Really? You don’t look Chinese.” Others would laugh. Even so, she always intended to track down her mother’s father and learn the full story of her multi-ethnic Jamaican-Chinese family.

By the time she found them, her tiny American family had expanded to about 400 living members and a family tree that goes back 3,000 years. A new documentary tells the story of that journey and the discovery of a family that today extends from Shenzhen, China, to Kingston, Jamaica, and Los Angeles, California.

Ms. Madison, 62, spent much of her career at NBC, and retired a few years ago as an executive at NBC Universal, one of the first black women to achieve that rank. She says she waited until retiring to pursue her dream of reconnecting with her Chinese family.

Before, “I did know a handful of my cousins,” she says. “Now there are about 40.”

The story is told in a film titled “Finding Samuel Lowe.” Below is the trailer for the film. (Click here if you receive this post by email and cannot view the video clip.)

What a fantastic story!

To learn more about the film and it’s upcoming premiere, visit www.findingsamuellowe.com.

What China Wants

Recently, The Economist published an excellent 4-part essay exploring China’s future. The first part, titled “What China Wants” looked at some of the major drivers of China’s economic and diplomatic policies.

Fotor0601215552

“China,” the author says, “is a nation that wants some things very much:”

“At home its people want continued growth, its leaders the stability that growth can buy. On the international stage people and Communist Party want a new deference and the influence that befits their nation’s stature. Thus China wants the current dispensation to stay the same—it wants the conditions that have helped it grow to endure—but at the same time it wants it turned into something else.”

“Finessing this need for things to change yet stay the same would be a tricky task in any circumstances. It is made harder by the fact that China’s Leninist leadership is already managing a huge contradiction between change and stasis at home as it tries to keep its grip on a society which has transformed itself socially almost as fast as it has grown economically. And it is made more dangerous by the fact that China is steeped in a belligerent form of nationalism and ruled over by men who respond to every perceived threat and slight with disproportionate self-assertion.”

The main issue, of course, is how China can/will manage this contradictory desire of seeking change while trying to maintain the status quo.

The other sections of the essay are:

The Long Fall

Expanding the Bounds

Leviathan and its Hooks

Can China get what it wants? Only time will tell.

I am not teaching a course on China this fall; if I were, this entire essay would be required reading.

 

Learning Chinese in the 1920′s

As part of her research for a book about Esther Nelson, my friend Noel stumbled upon a digitized version of a Chinese language textbook used by foreign missionaries working in Sichuan Province in the 1920′s. It’s titled Chinese Lessons for First Year Students in West China, by Omar L. Kilborn.

chineselessonsfo00kilbuoft_0005

Besides the fact that the romanization is obviously not Pinyin, and that some of the pronunciations seem to be based on Sichuan dialect, a glance at the table of contents reveals just how much things have changed:

Lesson 1: Conversation with a Teacher

Lesson 2: Hiring a Cook

Lesson 3: Hiring a Coolie

Lesson 4: Hiring a Woman Servant

Lesson 5: Giving the Cook his Orders

Lesson 6: Sweeping the Floor

Lesson 7: Washing the Floor

Lesson 8: Dusting

Lesson 9: Arranging the Furniture

Lesson 10: Piling Boxes

Lesson 11: Buying a Sedan Chair

Lesson 12: Sedan Chair Riding

Lesson 13: Travelling by Sedan Chair

Lesson 14: On the Road

Lesson 15: Changing Dollars

Lesson 16: Changing Silver

Lesson 17: Cleaning the Lamp

Lesson 18: Washing Dishes

Lesson 19: The Kitchen

Lesson 20: Setting the Table

Lesson 21: Putting the Food on the Table

Lesson 22: Cooking Eggs

Lesson 23: Cooking the Porridge

Lesson 24: Carrying a Letter

Lesson 25: Carrying a Lantern

Lesson 26: Buying Firewood

Lesson 27: Buying Coal

Lesson 28: Washing Clothes

Lesson 29: Ironing

Lesson 30: The Bedroom

Lesson 31: The Bathrooom

And last, but not least….

Lesson 32: Keeping a Cow

 

RELATED POSTS:

Learning Chinese in the 1600′s

Imagine Learning Chinese Without Pinyin

How Long Does it Take to Learn Chinese?

A Letter to Chinese Language Learners

 

 

 

 

 

How Many USA’s Can You Fit Inside China?

I ran across this interesting map on the inter webs the other day. It divides the population of China into four different regions, each with a population roughly equal to that of the United States. As you can see, the issue in China is not simply that the population of China is so large (1.35 billion); it’s that it’s unevenly distributed. Don’t like crowds? Go west, my friends, go west!

 

tumblr_nafww1MpkX1rasnq9o1_1280

 

Go here to see the data behind the map.

Note: The grey areas obviously indicate areas that the mapmaker considers to be disputed territory.

RELATED POST: How Big is China?

 

 

Bike Repair Station

On Saturday my niece and I decided to go for a bike ride. Since she lives in downtown St. Paul, we arranged to meet at a parking lot on Shephard Road and bike along the Mississippi River. When I arrived, I noticed that one of the tires on my bike was running a bit low on air.

“No problem,” my niece said. “There’s a bike repair station down by the riverboat dock.

Having lived in China for nearly thirty years, when I heard the words “bike repair station,” this is the picture that formed in my mind:

bikerepair2

However, when we arrived at the location of said bike repair station, this is what I saw:

biketuneupstation

Remember, folks. Living cross-culturally affects the pictures that form in your brain, which is to say, it affects the way you think!

RELATED POSTS: 

I Lost My Bike

Holiday Bike Ride

Bikers of Beijing, Arise!

Little Wheel Bike Race

Where’s My Bike? 

Some Like it Hot

And some like it really hot. For those of you who are in that category, there’s a new noodle restaurant in Beijing that claims to have the spiciest bowl of noodles in the world.

BN-EF408_spicy_G_20140822025244

From The Wall Street Journal:

Within China, there’s an age-old argument over which province has the spiciest food. There’s an old saying that “Guizhou people like spiciness, Sichuan people don’t fear spiciness, and Hunan people fear there is no spiciness.”

Fu Niu Tang, a recently opened beef noodle restaurant in Beijing, is trying to take the spicy crown for Hunan. It claims to have the world’s spiciest rice noodles and is challenging patrons to finish a bowl of the signature dish in 10 minutes. Those who can finish the task are awarded with a T-shirt and a card that entitles them to a permanent 10% discount.

The restaurant says the hot sauce for its rice noodles is 125 times hotter than Tabasco sauce.

The Wall Street Journal visited the noodle shop and filmed one of only 15 who have eaten an entire bowl of the flaming noodles in under ten minutes. Enjoy:

(if you receive this post by email and cannot see the video, click here.)

One thing is certain; the next time I’m in Beijing, I’m going to check this place out.

RELATED POST:

Micro-hot

Image source: The Wall Street Journal 

The “Face-kini” is Back!

It’s summer in China, which means thousands upon thousands of people are descending on the beaches in Qingdao (and other places). But here’s the thing — being on the beach means being out in the sun which means the potential for darkening skin which is considered a bad thing by Chinese women.

Have no fear, the “face-kini” is here!

_76958645_453287663

 

_76958646_455855509

This year, though, it seems like the fashion trend is jumping the Great Wall and heading out into the world. Here’s what The Telegraph has to say about it:

The facekini looks more like a balaclava than essential beachwear. But in China, that’s exactly what it has become.

Beachgoers in the eastern city of Qingdao have been sporting facekinis to protect their faces from the sun, and even jellyfish. The swimming gear is made of stretchy, swimsuit like material and covers the entire head. Holes are cut for the eyes, nose and mouth (well, you’ve got to be able to eat that sandy sandwich somehow).

But now it looks like the facekini – which also looks a bit like a Mexican wrestling mask – could become a global fashion item, with one New York-based fashion magazine, CR Fashion Book, featuring it in a photo shoot.

The images show models wearing patterned facekinis, accessorised with swimsuits, jewellery and heels, in a feature called “Masking in the sun: A hidden retreat in this season’s swimwear.”

Now here’s something really scary — they are now being sold on Amazon!

Photos: BBC

Related Posts: 

Swimming Masks

The Masked Swimmers of Qingdao Strike Again